Inventor of ADHD confesses “ADHD is a prime example of a ficticious disease”. The APA turns the hoax Ïnternet Addiction Disorder” into a DSM billing bible diagnosis!
The founders of Ablechild, Patricia Weathers and Sheila Matthews, have earned the title of “Unsung Heroes,” as both pioneers and warriors for over a decade, in the battle to protect children from the Psychopharmaceutical Industry.
Ablechild (Parents for A Label and Drug-Free Education), is a national non-profit founded in 2001, by these two mothers who each had personal experiences with being coerced by the public school system to label and drug their children for ADHD. Patty and Sheila went from being victims to become national advocates for the fundamental rights of all parents and children in the US.
Now with thousands of members, Ablechild acts as an independent advocate on behalf of parents whose children have been subjected to mental health screening and psychiatric labeling and drugging, and as a proponent for children in foster care who are improperly treated with psychotropic drugs, many times off-label, without informed consent.
Long Battle Against Coerced Drugging
Roughly eight years ago, on September 26, 2002, then Chairman the US House Government Reform Committee, Congressman Dan Burton (R-IN), held a hearing on the “Overmedication of Hyperactive Children,” prompted by a series in the New York Post.
“It’s estimated that 4 to 6 million children in the United States take Ritalin every single day,” Burton said in his opening statement. He pointed out that Ritalin was a Schedule II stimulant under the Federal Controlled Substances Act, that research showed it was a more potent transport inhibitor than cocaine, and use in the US had increased over a 500% since 1990. The Schedule II category also includes drugs such as cocaine, morphine, and Oxycontin.
Evelyn Pringle March 12, 2006
Some of the top-selling drugs of all time are those prescribed to treat attention deficit disorders. Drug companies have physicians in every field of medicine pushing these medications and dole out millions of dollars worth of free samples each year to make sure they are passed out like candy.
A new ADHD drug is set to come on the market that supposedly can keep people awake for days at a time with no problems. Just what we needed, especially for hyper little kids.
I wonder if this means they will remain calm as they sit wide-awake watching TV and playing video games for days while the rest of the family sleeps.
The drug Sparlon is manufactured by Cephalon and is a clone of Provigil, another drug already on the market. Sparlon contains modafinil, the same exact active ingredient contained in Provigil which is approved for the treatment of patients with narcolepsy, sleep apnea and shift work sleep disorder, according to the FDA.
The drug’s approval will be considered by the FDA’s Psychopharmacologic Drugs Advisory Committee at a public hearing scheduled for March 23, 2006.
The day before the Sparlon hearing, the FDA’s Pediatric Advisory Committee is scheduled to meet to discuss neuropsychiatric adverse events and cardiovascular adverse events reported on patients who were treated with ADHD stimulant drugs already on the market.
The drugs under review include Ritalin from Novartis, Adderall and Adderall XR from Shire Pharmaceuticals, Concerta from Johnson & Johnson, and generic versions of Ritalin.
On February 9 and 10, 2006, the FDA’s Drug Safety & Risk Management Advisory Committee held hearings on the same topic, and after reviewing the information provided at the hearing, the panel recommended that black box labels be added to the labels of all stimulants.
However, the FDA is not bound by the recommendations of its advisory panels, and critics of the drugs say the close 8-7 vote by the panel, means there will be spirited debate within the agency over whether black box labels will be added.
Several members of the panel said they voted for the warning in part, because they were alarmed over the sharp rise in prescriptions written for both children and adults. During the hearing, the committee was informed that between 1999 and 2003, roughly 78 million prescriptions were written for children under the age of 18, and 14 million more were written for adults.
In a stark contrast, only 190 million prescriptions were issued for children and adults during the 12 year period between 1992 and 2004.
According to the FDA numbers on adverse events, between 1999 and 2003, there were 25 deaths reported for persons using ADHD drugs, and 19 were children. The agency also acknowledged that more than 50 cases of cardiovascular-related events were reported in the same time period including stoke, heart attack, hypertension, palpitations and arrhythmia.
Critics say the numbers revealed at the hearings represent a gross understatement because only 1% to 10% of adverse reactions are ever reported to the FDA, and it would therefore be better to add a black box now and remove it later if studies prove there is no link between the stimulants and sudden death and heart disease.
Supporters of the drugs, say the warning is based on inconclusive evidence and would deter physicians from prescribing the medications and scare patients away from taking the drugs.
Because Cephalon claims Sparlon should not be classified as a stimulant, analysts predict the company could get a boost if the FDA agrees and requires the other drugs to carry a black box warning. One of the issues discussed at the March 23, hearing will likely be how to distinguish Sparlon’s labeling from other ADHD drugs.
If approved, Sparlon will be co-marketed under an agreement with Johnson & Johnson, which will focus on the pediatric market through its McNeil Consumer & Specialty Pharmaceuticals unit.
McNeil’s sales team will promote Sparlon to psychiatrists, pediatric neurologists and pediatricians, while Cephalon’s 400-person sales force will focus on non-pediatric specialists and primary care physicians.
When Cephalon requested FDA approval for Sparlon, it submitted the results from three clinical trials on children aged 6 to 17 that the company said indicated better results in children taking Sparlon compared to children who received a placebo. Each trial lasted 9 weeks and the most common side effects noted were loss of appetite, mild insomnia and headaches.
But Cephalon has not been sitting idle while waiting for approval of its Provigil clone. Last year it had to figure out a way to deal with the fact that Provigil’s patent was set to expire in 2006. Through some last minute legal footwork, the company was able to negotiate agreements with 4 generic firms that will allow Cephalon to continue to sell the drug unchallenged until at least 2011
Provigil’s approval for a silly diagnosis like “shift-work sleep disorder” is a good example of disease-mongering, described in the book, “Selling Sickness: How The World’s Biggest Pharmaceutical Companies Are Turning Us All Into Patients,” by Ray Moynihan and Alan Cassels, which explains how drug companies foster the creation of bogus disorders to create markets for their pills, through “medicalization” of normal states of health.
In the same vein, many experts say the sale of ADHD drugs in general is nothing but a racket. Dr Fred Baughman, a board certified child neurologist and Fellow of the American Academy of Neurology, calls ADHD the “greatest health care fraud of modern times.”
Clinical social worker Peter Dwyer, has seven years’ experience working with troubled children, and has served as director of a large therapeutic foster care program. He also attributes the ever-rising sales numbers for ADHD drugs to a grand marketing scheme.
“It is easy to see why stimulants dominate the treatment of ADHD,” he says, “drug companies spend over $20 billion a year on promotion – more than they spend on research.”
“The bottom line,” Mr Dwyer explains, “professionals and the public are bombarded with a stream of “research” and “information” financed and spun by the people who make and sell these drugs.”
“The conflict of interest is palpable,” he adds.
And anyone who believes Provigil is free of the side effects associated with other ADHD medications needs to speak to Susan Florence who experienced a terrifying adverse reaction to the drug.
“I took one pill and I thought I was coming out of my skin,” she recalls, “I felt as if someone had climbed inside me.”
“It was one of the worst experiences of my life,” she says.
Nonetheless, Cephalon has done an excellent job of promoting Provigil. The US Air Force has even adopted the drug as one of its official “go pills” for pilots whose missions stretch out more than 12 hours, according to Business Week on November 1, 2004.
Ever since Provigil hit the market, Cephalon stayed busy figuring out ways to promote its off-label use for a multitude of ailments including ADHD, and with obvious success. SG Cowen & Co analyst, Eric Schmidt, told Business Week he figures more than 50% of Provigil sales are for unapproved uses.
And 50% in off-label sales adds up to enormous profits. In 2004, US doctors wrote 1.9 million prescriptions for Provigil, generating $414 million in sales. In 2005, Cephalon saw Provigil sales reach $512 million, according to Forbes.com on March 13, 2006.
While waiting for Sparlon to be approved, the company has been using every trick in the book to boost sales of Provigil for the treatment of ADHD.
For instance, Dr Fletcher Taylor, from Tacoma, Washington, was paid to meet with small groups of doctors to talk about Provigil.
He conducted a study on the use of Provigil for ADHD, which he claims showed positive results. However, according to Business Week, Dr Taylor says “he does not bring up the use of Provigil for ADHD in his talks, but he answers questions – as he is permitted to do – if one of the doctors in the group brings it up.”
“Usually people do ask,” he told Business Week.
I’m quite sure they do ask, probably much like the people on TV who used to just happen to step out of the audience to be cured by faith-healer 50 years ago.
Cephalon also employs the well-known off-label marking technique of funding continuing medical education seminars (CMEs), under the guise of providing doctors with information related to how certain ailments can be treated by drugs that the company just happens to sell.
For example, Cephalon paid for a CME that focused on the treatment of daytime sleepiness experienced by Parkinson patients and explained how Provigil might be a useful therapy.
The sponsor of the program, a firm called Projects in Knowledge, told Business Week that Cephalon paid for the program but had no input on the material discussed.
And of course I believe that.
Another tried and true method of promoting off-label use involves publishing the results of favorable studies funded by drug companies in medical journals. “Journals have devolved into information laundering operations for the pharmaceutical industry,” according to Richard Horton, editor of the Lancet, in March 2004
In a prime example of this practice, the August 4, 2005 New England Journal of Medicine, published a report on a study funded by Cephalon in which the lead author, Dr Charles Czeisler, from Harvard Medical School and Brigham and Women’s Hospital, had a professorship endowed by $2 million from Cephalon.
In the report, Dr Czeisler claimed night-shift workers remained more alert with Provigil and wrote a glowing summary of the study. “I would characterize [Provigil] as the treatment of choice with patients with shift-work disorder,” he said.
However, Dr Robert Basner, director of Columbia University’s Cardiopulmonary Sleep and Ventilatory Disorders Center, published an editorial on the study in the same issue of the NEJM and said the researchers’ data showed only slight improvements in workers wakefulness and productivity with Provigil, and pointed out that the drug seemed to exacerbate insomnia for some patients.
“That’s not a very robust endorsement of the drug coming from the investigators themselves,” Dr Basner wrote. “This drug is little better than nothing in terms of making them less sleepy during shift work at night,” he added.
Experts pretty much agree that Sparlon will be approved for treating children with ADHD so before too long the “little better than nothing” clone will not doubt be ringing up the cash registers all over the US.
Evelyn Pringle February 15, 2006
The numbers cited by the FDA for possible attention deficit drug-related deaths and injuries represent a gross understatement of statistics. The truth is that these drugs are responsible for an endless stream of deaths and injuries all over the country.
According to the latest investigation by the FDA, in the four year period between 1999 and 2003, there were twenty-five deaths in persons using ADHD drugs, 19 of which were children. Officials also acknowledged that more than 50 cases of cardiovascular problems had been reported, including stroke, heart attack, hypertension, palpitations and arrhythmia.
There are many more documented adverse events caused by these drugs and the FDA knows it.
For instance, on November 20, 1986, after being on Ritalin since the third grade, 14-year-old Rod Mathews lured a classmate, Shawn Ouillette, into a wooded area near his home in Canton, Massachusetts, under the pretense of a plan to build a snow fort, and beat him to death with a baseball bat.
Although he had no prior history of violence, Rod beat Shawn until he died and just left the body in the woods. Rod took two friends to see the body, and threatened them with the same fate if they told anyone about the murder.
Shaun’s parents reported him missing but his body was not found until about three weeks later, when one of Rod’s friends tipped off police.
A month before the murder, Rod wrote about some of his bizarre thoughts and actions and said:
“My problem is I like to do crazy things. I’ve been lighting fires all over the place. Lately, I’ve been wanting to kill people I hate, and I’ve been wanting to light houses on fire. What should I do?”
This 14-year-old child was tried as an adult, found guilty of second-degree murder, and went on to become the youngest inmate in the Massachusetts state prison system.
By all accounts, Shaun was a wonderful son and his mother, Jeanne Quinn, missed him terribly. Jeanne told friends that when Rod killed her son he killed her too.
So, the question remains, why isn’t Shaun’s name listed under Ritalin-related deaths?
There is also no mention of the prescription drug-deaths of three members of the McCra family from Rochester, Massachusetts.
On October 9, 1993, 15-year-old Gerard McCra, Jr shot and killed his mother, Merle, 36, his father, Gerald, 35, and his 11-year-old sister, Melanie, after taking Ritalin for nine years – since he was six-years-old.
According to court documents and testimony at trial, Gerald told authorities that he was upset because his parents threatened to kick him out of the house.
On the day of the crime, Gerald said his father and sister were about to leave in the family car, and he asked them to wait so that he could go with them.
Gerald went back in the house, broke into his grandfather’s room, got a loaded gun and shot his mother in the back of the head and then returned to the waiting car, and shot his father and sister in the back of the head as well.
Next Gerald drove the car to an area behind the house and dragged his mother’s body into his sister’s room and locked the door.
He attempted to clean up the bloody areas of the house, and then showered and called a female friend and told her to come over to visit. The two spent the night together in Gerald’s room.
The next day, he drove the car up to the house, loaded his mother’s body in it, and drove car away and left it sit. Later that day, police found the parked car with the three dead bodies abandoned along a dirt road.
After police found the bodies, Gerald admitted to the killings. He was convicted of three counts of first degree murder on October 23, 1995, and each carried a mandatory life sentence.
The FDA made no mention of the ADHD drug related death of little Sherrice Iverson at the hearings. On May 25, 1997, an 18-year-old high school senior, Jeremy Strohmeyer, raped and murdered seven-year-old Sherrice, in a Nevada casino. Jeremy had been diagnosed with ADHD and prescribed Dexedrine just days before the crime.
The former high school honor student from Long Beach, California, sexually assaulted and then strangled Sherrice in a stall in the women’s bathroom at Primm Valley Casino on the Nevada-California border. Security cameras picked up Jeremy leaving the bathroom.
When police arrived at Jeremy’s home and were waiting for a search warrant, his mother gave them an empty Dexedrine bottle and a suicide note her son had left that said:
“I am so sorry, I just pray that this is enough to finish me off. Please Lord let me die. I’m sorry, mom, I’m sorry dad, Heather, all my friends and family. Forgive me for I have sinned. I’m sorry. Please give these things (unidentified objects) to Agnes Lee. Tell her I will always love her.”
Heather is Jeremy’s sister and Agnes Lee is a former girlfriend. Jeremy had taken 37 Dexedrine pills. Police took him to the hospital where his stomach was pumped and according to police reports, Jeremy gave the officers a complete confession.
Moments before his trial was set to begin on September 8, 1998, Jeremy pleaded guilty to charges of kidnapping, sexual assault, and murder. The plea agreement would send him to prison for life with no chance of parole. Had he gone to trial, he could have gotten the death penalty.
The Ritalin-related deaths of three young Kentucky girls, Nicole Hadley, Jessica James, and Kayce Steger are not listed in the FDA report.
On December 1, 1997, 14-year-old Michael Carneal, was on Ritalin, when he started firing a gun during a prayer meeting at a high school in West Paducah, Kentucky, killing Jessica, 17, Kayce, 15, and 14-year-old Nicole, and wounding five other students, including one who is paralyzed.
That morning, Michael rode to school with his sister Kelly. He wrapped the guns in a blanket and passed the bundle off as a school project. A couple of days before the rampage, Michael had stole the guns from a friend’s garage.
Michael’s sister Kelly witnessed the shootings and told police that had she not seen Michael’s face, she would not have recognized him as her brother.
According to his friends, at the time of the shooting, Michael suffered from severe paranoia and unreasonable fears and believed that his friends and family were plotting against him. Among his fears were people hiding in the air vents in his home which caused Michael to cover the vents in the bathroom with towels every time he took a shower.
He feared that people were beneath the floorboards waiting to cut off his feet with a chainsaw and slept with knives under his mattress in case he needed to fight off a burglar.
At the FDA hearings, nobody mentioned the Ritalin-related injuries to Shelley Schaberg, 17, Melissa “Missy” Jenkins, 15, Kelly Hard, 16, Craig Keene, 15, and Hollan Holm, 14, who were all wounded by Michael at the school that day.
Michael pleaded guilty to the charges by reason of mental illness and was sentenced to life in prison without the possibility of parole for at least 25 years. Lucky for Michael, Kentucky law prohibits giving the death penalty to anyone under the age of 16.
The March 10, 1998, Ritalin-related deaths of Gerald and Cynthia Franklin of Huntsville, Alabama, are not noted in the FDA report, and neither are the Ritalin-related injuries to their 3 children, Sara, Timothy and Christopher Franklin
The Franklin’s 17-year-old first-born son, Jeffrey, was on the prescribed drugs of Ritalin, Prozac, and Klonopin, an anti-convulsant, when he killed his parents as they came home from work and then attempted to murder his 12-year-old sister and two brothers aged 9 and 6. Jeffrey’s 11-year-old sister, Stacey, was not at home at the time of the attacks.
A doctor maintained that that Jeff had ADHD, accompanied by depression and prescribed the drug cocktail to supposedly treat his condition.
A neighbor called the police after he found one of the children wandering around outside in a daze, all bloody and crying.
Gerald and Cynthia, were dead when the police arrived and the wounded siblings were taken to the Huntsville Hospital. “The children all had very serious head and face injuries from what looked like an ax and some sort of large, blunt force object,” hospital spokeswoman Terri Bryson told police.
Police reports noted that all five victims had massive head wounds, slashes to their necks and faces, and blood-soaked clothes and that Jeff was shirtless and covered with blood when arrested.
Police said Jeff bludgeoned his family members with a bloody hatchet found in the home, that had a blade on one side and a hammer on the other.
According to legal documents, Jeff told police that he had snorted crushed Ritalin pills and had not slept for days. Police investigator Chester McCutcheon told the judge in the case that Jeff had described an out-of-body experience and hallucinations in which he believed that horns were growing from his head.
Police reports said that prior to his arrest, Jeff lead police on a high-speed car chase and that he spat, cursed and made obscene gestures when police and news crews caught up with him after he crashed into a fence, in a residential neighborhoods in southeast Huntsville.
In the early stages of court proceedings, the press reported that a quiet, docile Jeffrey Franklin seemed like a different youth than the teen arrested on March 10, 1998. Police interviews with classmates and neighbors turned up no leads as to what may have triggered the murders.
In 1999, Jeff was found mentally incompetent to stand trial but a couple years later, following treatment, it was determined that he was able to stand trial. The defense entered a plea of not guilty by reason of mental defect. Three days before the trial was set to begin, Jeff pleaded guilty to killing his parents and attempting to murder three siblings.
This young man who obviously experienced a severe adverse reaction after being placed on a daily cocktail of 3 dangerous drugs, was sentenced to 5 life terms in prison. His name should be included in the list of people having adverse effects.
The names of Andrew Golden and Mitchell Johnson should also be listed in FDA records under ADHD drug-related adverse effects.
On March 24, 1998 in Jonesboro, Arkansas, 11-year-old Andrew Golden and 14-year-old Mitchell Johnson shot and killed one teacher, four students, and wounded 10 others people. According to published reports, the boys were on Ritalin.
Andrew Golden and Mitchell staged a false fire alarm and then began shooting students and teachers as they exited the building. An Arkansas judge found the 2 children guilty of 5 counts of capital murder and 10 counts of battery. The boys received the maximum sentence possible under Arkansas juvenile laws: placement in a juvenile facility until they turn 18, possibly until they turn 21, if a facility is built for 18-21-year-olds.
Young Kip Kinkel’s name should be listed on the front page of FDA reports on adverse drug reactions.
On May 20, 1998, Kip was only 14-years-old on the night that he murdered both of his parents. When he got up the next morning, he went to Thurston High School in Springfield, Oregon and shot and killed two students and wounded 22 more people.
After being diagnosed with dyslexia, Kip had been was placed on Ritalin and was later prescribed Prozac as well.
On the day he killed his parents, Kip was arrested at school and charged with possession of a firearm in a public building and receiving a stolen weapon. According to Detective Al Warthen who interviewed him, Kip was very upset and worried about what his parents were going to think while waiting for his father Bill to come to the station and get him.
According to Kip’s confession, at about 3 that afternoon, his father was sitting at the kitchen counter drinking coffee when Kip took a 22 rifle from his room, got ammunition from his father’s room, and shot his father once in the back of his head.
After that, Kip told police detectives, “I didn’t know what to do so I dragged him into the bathroom and then put a white sheet over him.”
After killing his father, Kip said that he waited for his mother to come home. According to his taped confession, when she drove in the garage at about 6:30 pm, he told her that he loved her, and then shot her twice in the back of the head, three times in the face and one time through the heart. He then dragged her body across the garage floor and covered her with a sheet.
After killing his parents, Kip apparently wrote a note that police found on the coffee table in the family living room that said:
“I have just killed my parents! I don’t know what is happening. I love my mom and dad so much. I just got two felonies on my record. My parents can’t take that! It would destroy them. The embarrassment would be too much for them. They couldn’t live with themselves. I’m so sorry. I am a horrible son. I wish I had been aborted. I destroy everything I touch. I can’t eat. I can’t sleep. I didn’t deserve them. They were wonderful people. It’s not their fault or the fault of any person, organization, or television show. My head just doesn’t work right. God damn these VOICES inside my head. I want to die. I want to be gone. But I have to kill people. I don’t know why. I am so sorry! Why did God do this to me. I have never been happy. I wish I was happy. I wish I made my mother proud. I am nothing! I tried so hard to find happiness. But you know me I hate everything. I have no other choice. What have I become? I am so sorry.”
The next morning, Kip filled his backpack with ammunition and carried 3 guns. He taped a hunting knife to his leg, wore a long trench coat to conceal the weapons, and drove his mother’s car to school.
Security cameras showed him walking down the hall towards the school cafeteria when he shot Ben Walker and Ryan Atteberry before entering the cafeteria and firing off what remained of the 50 round clip of a 22 caliber semiautomatic and one round from a handgun. By the time five classmates wrestled Kip to floor, 2 students were dead and 25 others were injured.
Theresa Miltonberger, was the most severely injured student to survive and spent 65 days in the hospital. She has bullet fragments permanently lodged in her brain causing cognitive and memory impairment.
Kip pled guilty to four counts of murder and 26 counts of attempted murder even though he had no idea of what caused him to commit the crimes.
On November 2, 1999, after a 6-day hearing that included testimony by psychiatrists, a statement by Kip’s sister’s asking for leniency, and statements by victims, this 14-year-old child, who was placed on a daily cocktail of dangerous drugs through no fault of his own, was sentenced to 111 years in prison, without the possibility of parole.
In requesting leniency, Kip’s sister, Kristin explained to the judge how she had tried to prepare Kip for when he would have to listen to statements from victims and told him to “just tune out … to a safe place in his memory, and not listen to the victims when they talk, because they are angry and going to say things they really don’t mean.”
Kristin relayed how Kip stopped her and said, “No, I owe it to them to listen.”
The name of every student harmed at the school that day, should appear in the FDA report under drug-related adverse events.
The Adderall-related death of an infant in Grand Forks, North Dakota was not listed in the report either. On January 30, 1999, Ron Ehlis killed his 5-week-old daughter Tyra, ten days after his doctor wrote him a prescription for Adderall.
As a child, Ron was put on Ritalin and when he went to see a psychiatrist at age 26, because he was having a hard time with his college studies, without conducting any type of tests, the doctor prescribed Adderall.
After a few days, he did as the doctor instructed and doubled the dose, and Ron’s nightmare began.
He described delusions, hallucinations, and out-of-body experiences, including talking with God and his dead grandfather after he upped the dose. Believing to be acting under God’s orders, Ron shot his ﬁve-week-old daughter and then shot himself in the stomach. The baby did not survive.
Ron was charged with murder, but the charges were dismissed after several doctors testiﬁed that he suffered from an amphetamine-induced psychotic disorder, caused by the Adderall and did not have the necessary criminal responsibility. Angie Moreno, the baby’s mother, testified that Ron did not act like himself from the ﬁrst day he took the Adderall.
The name Tyra Ehlis should definitely be listed under Adderall-related death.
Shawn Cooper was 15-years-old and on Ritalin, on April 16, 1999, when he took a 12-gauge shotgun to his high school in Notus, Idaho, and held the entire school hostage for about 20 minutes. Shawn fired two shotgun rounds, wounding one student, and narrowly missing other classmates and teachers. Prior to that fateful day, Shawn was best noticed in his position of outfielder on the school baseball team.
There was nothing mentioned at the FDA hearings about Shawn Cooper’s Ritalin-related adverse event.
Thomas Solomon’s name is nowhere to be found either.
In 1999, Thomas Solomon Jr, or TJ to his friends, was a 15-year-old sophomore on Ritalin when he brought a rifle to Heritage High School in Conyers, Georgia on May 20, and shot six students. The event happened one month to the day after the Columbine school massacre.
His classmates said TJ had a dazed expression on his face as he began firing the gun. He was known to be a good shot, but did not seem to be aiming at people. If he was trying to imitate the Columbine shooters, TJ was apparently a bad actor.
The press noted that he had access to his stepfather’s high-caliber guns but brought a low-powered rifle to the school.
The shooting ended quickly and TJ backed out the door and dropped the rifle. He then kneeled on ground, pulled a 357 magnum out of his bookbag, and put the barrel of the gun in his mouth.
The assistant principal, Cecil Brinkley reportedly calmed TJ, by saying: “It’s going to be all right, put it down.”
TJ removed the gun from his mouth and collapsed in Mr Brinkley’s arms sobbing and said: “Oh, my God, I’m so scared.”
TJ’s classmates expressed total disbelief over his behavior. “He’d be the last person I’d think would do something like this,” classmate Ryan Rosa told Time Magazine. “He was normal. Just like me,” Ryan said.
At the time, the press described TJ as a quiet, teen who was literally a Boy Scout, who attended church regularly and played baseball on a county league.
School Superintendent, Donald Peccia, told reporters that school records contained no warning signs. “The disciplinary record would not indicate he had been any significant trouble,” Peccia said. “We had no reason to suspect this student at all.”
In addition to the injured that were shot, there were 2 other very lucky students that day. When the shooting began, one girl held a book to her chest and later discovered that a bullet had penetrated the book to page 162. Another girl found bullet fragments in her bookbag the next day but the spiral binding of a notebook had stopped the bullet.
This never-before violent, Ritalin-drugged child, was sentenced to 40 years in a Georgia State Prison, where at 17, he attempted suicide by swallowing antidepressants.
The name of every student injured by TJ at the school that day should be listed in FDA records under adverse drug events.
The death of young Jessica Curry in Spokane, Washington is also not mentioned in the FDA report.
In late September 1999, Jessica was a happy, 8-year-old third grader as she sat on her mother, Sharon’s lap in the passenger seat of her mother’s Mustang convertible, discussing what she wanted to wear for Halloween.
After she told her mother that she wanted a princess costume, Sharon who was on Adderall at the time, stabbed Jessica 5 times and then stabbed herself. A short time later a policeman found Sharon and Jessica still sitting in car in the driveway, all covered in blood. The mother lived, but Jessica did not.
When the officer asked Sharon what happened, she asked him for a cigarette.
Sharon was found not guilty of all charges, by reason of insanity brought on by the Adderall. Doctors for the state and the defense agreed that she was insane when she killed Jessica and that her mental state was so acute that she could not distinguish between right and wrong.
Sharon sued her doctor alleging he prescribed an excessive dose of Adderall and caused her to kill her daughter. The lawsuit was settled out of court, but neither side would reveal the details.
The death of three-year-old toddler, Nathaniel Branson, is also not mentioned in the FDA report.
On March 18, 2000, Nat’s mother Dawn was driving in Scottsdale, Arizona with her son in the car when she suffered a psychotic episode while on Adderall.
According to court documents, Dawn heard a voice saying: “Let go of the steering wheel and gas. God will drive the car don’t you trust him?”
She did as the voice said, and a car accident followed which resulted in her son’s death and serious injuries to Dawn. Prior to being prescribed Adderall, she had never been psychotic and since she quit taking the drug, there have been no further psychotic episodes.
The FDA did not include the Adderall-related death of Errol Sr in the report.
On the evening of April 25, 2003, Errol Sr and his wife, Janet, went to their son, Errol Jr’s home near Lafayette, Indiana, to check on Jr because the father and son had argued the night before.
According to court testimony, Errol Jr was on Adderall when he met his father at the door with a gun and began shooting, while Errol Sr fled, and eventually collapsed in a ditch across the road.
The son then reloaded the gun, got a flashlight and went and shot his father several more times as he lay bleeding in the ditch, while his mother watched in horror.
At the criminal trial, Dr John Pless, a forensic pathologist from Indiana University, testified that Errol Sr was shot 10 times. Dr Pless testified that seven of the most severe injuries were to the chest and abdomen and that one bullet entered his skull.
Errol’s Jr’s sister, Carly, testified that she believed her brother’s addiction to Adderall caused him to develop a mental illness in the 6 months leading up to the murder. “I watched him growing up by my side in a good home and a good family, and he was a good boy,” she said. “It was complete chaos in our lives for six months before this event.”
At the trial, two court-appointed psychiatrists testified that Errol Jr was insane and unable to appreciate right from wrong at the time of the murder. Dr Stephen Berger identified the problem as drug-induced psychosis brought on by Adderall.
Errol Jr testified at the trial and said that spirits convinced him that his father was the devil and that he needed to be killed.
The jury took less than two hours to reject the insanity defense and find him guilty of murder and the judge imposed the maximum 70-year prison sentence allowed.
A formal statement issued by Errol Jr’s mother and two sisters said: “On behalf of Janet, Erica and Carly, we were surprised and deeply saddened that Errol did not receive guilty but mentally ill so that he could have the medical care he needs. It is clear to us that this is necessary, and in the face of this tragedy, we still love him.”
At the February 10, 2006 hearing, the FDA advisory panel recommended black box warning labels for ADHD drugs and said that a medication guide should be provided to parents and patients when the drugs are prescribed.
In light of the tragedies above, and the rapidly spreading addiction to these drugs all across America, any warning by public health officials in 2006 is too little too late.
Evelyn Pringle February 13, 2006
“Our society viewed with loathing those who ‘pushed’ stimulant drugs on children,” says child psychiatrist Dr Peter Breggin. “Yet today, there are more children taking Ritalin and amphetamines from doctors than ever received them from illegal pushers,” he says.
“Parents and teachers and even doctors have been badly misled by drug company marketing practices,” he warns. “Drug companies have targeted children as a big market likely to boost profits and children are suffering as a result.”
The marketing campaign referred to by Dr Breggin has proven to be extremely successful At a February 10, 2006, FDA advisory committee hearing, it was reported by Dr Andrew Mosholder, a medical officer in the FDA’s Office of Drug Safety, that about 2.5 million children in this country between the age 4 and 17, currently take ADHD drugs. A government survey found 9.3% of 12-year-old boys, and 3.7% of 11-year-old girls are on the drugs, he said.
In 1980, the so-called Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD), which amounts to little more than a list of behaviors, was voted into existence as a mental illness by the American Psychiatric Association, so it could be included in the psychiatric billing Bible known as the Diagnostic & Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders, DSM.
In 1987, an H was added to the label and the illness became, “Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.” Within one year, 500,000 children in the US were diagnosed with this cash-cow disorder.
A few years later, it was classified as a disability and a cash incentive program was initiated for low-income families with children diagnosed with ADHD. A family could get $450 a month for each child diagnosed with the disorder, and the cost of treatment and medication for low-income children would be covered by Medicaid.
Then in 1991, schools began receiving educational grants of $400 annually for each ADHD child. The same year, the US Department of Education classified the disorder as a handicap, which required special services to be provided to each disabled child.
By 1996, close to $15 billion was spent annually on the diagnosis, treatment, and study of the so-called attention deficit disorder.
Over roughly the past 2 years, public health officials in the US, Canada and the UK have issued warnings about previously known, but undisclosed, risks associated with the stimulant drugs used to treat ADHD.
In September 2005, Canadian public health officials asked drug makers to turn over data from all clinical trials and post-marketing reports for the medications by the end of 2005 to be reviewed in 2006.
The February 2006 hearings, represent the third time in 2 years that the FDA has addressed the heart related side effects of ADHD drugs. This whole charade is beginning to look more and more like a repeat of the Vioxx debacle.
Foot-dragging earned the FDA a rebuke this month from Senator, Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa), chairman of the Senate Committee on Finance, which has exclusive jurisdiction over the Medicare and Medicaid programs which, according to Sen Grassley, pay hundreds of millions of dollars for prescription drugs each year, including drugs used to treat ADHD.
In a February 6, 2006, letter to acting FDA commissioner, Dr Andrew von Eschenbach, Sen Grassley said in part, “I remain concerned that while both psychiatric and cardiovascular risk signals have cropped up across this class of drugs this past year, it appears that FDA is just now beginning to ‘discuss approaches’ for studying these risks.”
“More specifically,” Sen Grassley wrote, “I question why it has taken nearly an entire year for FDA to begin to address these concerns given the serious nature of the adverse events associated with these drugs.”
In the letter, Sen Grassley noted that the FDA had recently announced upcoming meetings of two different advisory committees to examine different ways of studying adverse events related to ADHD drugs when studies showing the risks had already been done. He accused the FDA of taking a slow approach to regulating the drugs.
As examples of risk already established, Sen Grassley pointed out that in February 2005, cardiovascular concerns raised in adverse event reports led Canadian health officials to suspend market authorization of Adderall XR for six months due to a review of safety information from Shire that showed 20 international reports of sudden death and that in 2004, the FDA required Shire to include the risk of sudden death on the label.
He noted that last summer, the safety of the drugs was called into question when the FDA publicly stated that it had concerns about psychiatric side effects from the use of Concerta and specifically stated on its website that it had “identified two possible safety concerns with the methylphenidate drug products: psychiatric adverse events and cardiovascular adverse events.”
Sen Grassley also pointed out that in September of 2005, the FDA had issued an alert to healthcare professionals regarding the use of Strattera, after reviewing data showing an increase in suicidal thoughts in 12 separate studies, and directed Eli Lilly, to “revise the labeling…to include a boxed warning and additional warning statements regarding an increased risk of suicidal thinking in children and adolescents.”
As an added pressure, Sen Grassley asked for a complete list of names of participating panel members and a complete list of conflict disclosures for both the February 9-10 2006, advisory committee and the March 22, 2006, Pediatric Advisory Committee.
The latest report made public by the FDA at the February 2006 hearings, said that between 1999 and 2003, there were twenty-five deaths in persons using ADHD drugs, including the deaths of 19 children. Officials also admitted to receiving reports of more than 50 cases of cardiovascular problems, including stoke, heart attack, hypertension, palpitations and arrhythmia.
The report only covers a 4 year period and because only between 1 and 10% of adverse events are ever reported, the numbers above represent a gross understatement of actual cases of harm from these drugs.
The report could not have considered the increase in emergency room visits associated to Ritalin abuse alone over the past decade. According to the Drug Abuse Warning Network, while there were 271 Ritalin-related emergency room visits in 1990, there were 1,478 Ritalin-related visits in 2001.
According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse, in 1999, some 165 Ritalin-related poison calls were made in Detroit; 419 cases were reported in Texas, and only 114 of those cases involved intentional misuse or abuse.
While the FDA foot-dragging has continued for years, the drug companies have been making a fortune by pushing the exact same pills that have been pedaled on the street for 50 years under names like black beauties, yellow jackets, uppers, white crosses, and bennies.
These are the exact same drugs that were handed out like candy in the 1960s and 1970s, when prescribed under the guise of diet pills, and used by truckers to stay awake, by entertainers and athletes to perform, and by people who wanted to party for days in the general population, until they were banned.
The drugs contain the exact same amphetamine that was THE main ingredient in the once popular “B-12” injections given weekly to wealthy patients in doctor’s offices all over the country until they were banned.
So here we are in 2006, with pharma making a killing by selling dangerous drugs that have been outlawed time and time again. What kind of profits are we looking at? As of September 2005, Walgreen’s prices for a 30 day supply for the lowest dosage of the top selling drugs were:
Methylphenidate (generic Ritalin) $15.69
Ritalin (brand name): $27.79
Amphetamine/dextroamphetamine (generic Adderall): $47.09
Adderall (brand name): $94.49
According to Dr Mosholder, since March 2002, prescriptions written for adults rose by 90%, to about 1 million a month as of June 2005, and to about 2 million a month for children.
If the three million people are on the lowest priced Ritalin, a round number of $30 per month times 3 million would create over $1 billion a year for the drug company alone. Then add in the medical and psychological professional fees and the grand total easily exceeds $2 billion per year. And if the patients are on Adderall, the cost of the drug triples to over $3 billion a year.
The money earned by prescribing shrinks is nothing to sneeze at either. A 2003 American Psychological Association study on “financial disincentives” for psychotherapy found that doctors could earn about $263 an hour for doing three 15-minute “medication management” sessions, verses about $156 for a single 45 to 50-minute therapy session. That represents a pay cut of 41% an hour for doing therapy only, the study determined.
However, hopefully we are about to see a dwindling of the above profit margins.
On February 10, 2006, the Drug Safety and Risk Management advisory committee said that ADHD drugs should carry the strongest warning label that they may be linked to an increased risk of death and injury.
One of the committee members who pushed for the label, Cardiologist, Steven Nissen, said something must be done to curtail the prescription rates. “I feel strongly we need to slow the growth of utilization,” he said. “When you have that kind of exposure for drugs that are suspicious, that does create a major public health concern,” he added.
This legally prescribed speed is being passed around between students in schools and colleges all over the nation. A 2002 study by the University of Wisconsin estimated that one of five college students takes Adderall, many for recreational reasons.
On July 25, 2005, CBS News reported that “Adderall and Ritalin have in fact become “street drugs” at America’s colleges and universities, where prescription stimulants often replace coffee and CliffsNotes as the study aids for today’s college students.”
According to Dr Sean Esteban McCabe, interim director of the University of Michigan Substance Abuse Research Center, a recent survey found that 6.9% of American college students have taken prescription stimulants illicitly, and up to 25% at certain elite universities with high academic pressures and admission standards.
The study canvassed students at 119 four-year colleges and universities nationwide and was published in the January 2005 issue of the journal Addiction. The specific focus of the study was the non-medical use of Ritalin, Dexedrine and Adderall.
Based on his survey, Dr McCabe found that, prescription stimulant abuse tends to lead to higher rates of other drug abuse and driving while drinking.
The survey found that students who had used a prescription stimulant non-medically in the past year were 10 times more likely to report the use of marijuana, twenty times more likely to use cocaine, and 5 times more likely to report driving after binge drinking.
On December 5, 2005, the Nashville, Tennessee based newspaper, The Tennessean reported that Athletes aren’t the only ones popping pills to gain a competitive edge these days.
“College students are turning to prescription stimulants such as Adderall and Ritalin to get them through late-night cram sessions, risking potential side effects and unknown long-term effects for a chance at a better grade,” it wrote.
“I would say it’s pretty common,” says Matthew Fleischer, a senior philosophy major at Vanderbilt University. “I know people who use it; I know people who call me and ask me if I can find some for them,” he told the Tennessean.
More than 50 college newspapers have already published articles describing Adderall abuse on campus according to CBS News.
For school age children, these drugs are providing a spring-board into early addiction. Over the past few years, high school students have been busted for using the legal speed all across the country.
For instance, on March 16, 2001, in Norwich Connecticut, 3 eighth-graders were hospitalized when they overdosed on Adderall at school.
On September 12, 2002, NBC TV News reported that 11 students were transported to Antelope Valley and Lancaster Community Hospital in Los Angeles California, for treatment of possible overdose from Ritalin. The school confiscated a large amount of Ritalin pills. “I would say in excess of 150,” said school principal Mark Bryant.
In three separate cases in 2004, Tucson, Arizona area students were caught with Adderall. Six Catalina Foothills High School students were suspended for taking or possessing Adderall while on campus, according to reports from the Pima County Sheriff’s Department reports.
Two Ironwood Ridge High School students, ages 15 and 17, were cited for exchanging Adderall in January, 2004, according to an Oro Valley, Arizona police report.
And 6 football players at Millennium High School in Goodyear, Arizona were disciplined by the Agua Fria Union High School District for taking Adderall before a game.
In both of the Tucson cases, students who had legal prescriptions for Adderall and brought the pills to school and gave them to classmates.
On October 13, 2005, a 17-year-old Waukesha, Wisconsin boy was arrested on felony charges for possession of Adderall, after the car he was riding in was stopped for a broken taillight.
On January 20, 2006, Florida Okaloosa County Sheriff Department received word that a student at Richbourg Middle School had illegally shared the prescription drug Adderall.
“Unfortunately and sadly,” Sheriff Rick Hord told reporters, “the news value may not be how unusual this is but rather how common it is.”
“We’ve had 22 cases so far that have been investigated primarily by the resource officers but in a couple of incidents by other deputies, of drugs on campus at just about every school you can name,” he said.
On February 7, 2006, two Harrington, Delaware middle school students were arrested for distributing Adderall at WT Chimpan Middle School over a period of 3 months. Both students were expelled.
If children are having problems, they need therapy not speed.
William Pelham, a well-known researcher involved with clinical trials of both Concerta and Adderall, says a major study, sponsored by the National Institute of Mental Health, showed that behavioral therapy often eliminates the need for drugs altogether.
During a one-year trial, he told The Street.com, 75% of the children who relied on behavioral treatments functioned well without the drugs. Moreover, he added, most of those children remained off the drugs a full year later.
“What this means to me is that two-thirds of ADHD kids could be taken off the medications,” Pelham told Street.com. “I do think they are grossly overused as a first line of intervention,” he added.
According to Dr Peter Breggin: “We are encouraging a generation of youngsters to grow up relying on psychiatric drugs rather than on themselves and other human resources.”
“In the long run,” he warns, “we are giving our children a very bad lesson, that drugs are the answer to emotional problems.”
Evelyn Pringle March 20, 2006
A study published online in the February 2006, Journal of Drug and Alcohol Dependence, that examined data from a 2002 survey of about 67,000 households, estimates that more than 7 million Americans have misused stimulant drugs meant to treat ADHD, and “substantial numbers of teenagers and young adults appear to show signs of addiction, according to a comprehensive national analysis tracking such abuse.”
The statistics are alarming because people are using the drugs recreationally or to boost academic and professional performance. The scientists who published the study concluded that about 1.6 million teenagers and young adults had misused these stimulants during a 12-month period and that 75,000 showed signs of addiction.
Last month, the FDA’s Drug Safety and Risk Management Advisory Committee held 2 days of hearings, and after listening to all the testimony and reviewing the data presented, recommended that all ADHD drugs carry a black box warning on increased cardiovascular risks.
This month, the Pediatric Advisory Committee is meeting on March 22, 2006, and will focus on neuropsychiatric adverse event reports and trial data on ADHD medications. The committee will also receive an update on efforts to better understand cardiovascular adverse events possibly related to ADHD medications, according to the FDA web site.
During the hearings last month, the Alliance for Human Research Protection, asked the FDA to issue (1) a public advisory; (2) a “dear doctor” letter to every doctor in America to apprise them of the essentially lethal side effects that are being tracked; and (3) to solicit the reporting of any and all adverse events of which they are aware.
Allen Jones, speaking as a representative of the Alliance, told the panel the FDA should instruct the pharmaceutical industry to advise the FDA of all adverse events that have been reported concerning ADHD drugs immediately, and also it should demand that all clinical trials in possession of the drug companies be turned over to the FDA so that independent researchers can review them for adverse events.
“We don’t have the luxury of time to wait for the future trials,” he pointed out. “Children are dying,” he said.
Ellen Liversridge, having lost her son to side effects of the drug Zyprexa before they were made known in a black box warnings, appeared to speak on behalf of all parents who have lost their children due to adverse reactions to prescription drugs.
“I grieve particularly today for the 51 dead of ADHD drugs that were announced yesterday by the FDA,” she told the panel.
“I guess my up-front message, front and center,” she continued, “is that you know that ADHD drugs can cause serious side effects and death, including sudden death, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, and possibly bipolar disorder.
“This being the case,” she said, “I urge you to recommend that these drugs have an appropriate black box warning placed on the label starting immediately.”
Sandra Lucas, appeared at the hearing to speak on behalf of the Citizens Commission on Human Rights, a psychiatric watchdog group, and told the panel, “we do know that the side effects of the stimulants are not only present, they are extremely serious and sometimes lethal.”
“So,“ she asked the committee, “while the FDA ponders the problem of studying the issue and conducting the studies that may have inherent flaws, what real, immediate protections are to be put in place for parents and children?”
During the hearing, Drug Safety panel member, Dr Art Levin, told the committee, “I think we have to recognize that when a drug is approved and marketed the public assumes a level of comfort in the safety of that drug unless they are told otherwise.”
“And, for us to sit around and talk about this,” he continued, “to have three advisory committee meetings discussing the signals and not to make, at the very least, a very strong warning to people that there is uncertainty here about the safety of these drugs and that they need to be aware of that pending clarification I just think is inappropriate, unethical behavior.”
Committee member, Dr Steve Nissan advised, “we have to elevate the level of concern and if it slows the growth of this, that is probably appropriate because I think most observers would argue that ten percent of ten year-olds do not have this disease and what has happened is that this is out-of-control use of drugs that have profound cardiovascular effects and, as a cardiologist, I can tell you that,” he said.
Panel member, Dr Curt Furberg, recommended that ADHD drugs also come with a patient guide “so that when parents are filling prescriptions for their kids they get a written document laying out the state of knowledge, or lack of the state of knowledge and the potential risks so they are reminded each time that there is a potential risk and we are trying to find solutions to it,” he advised.
Since last month’s recommendation for a black box warning on cardiovascular events, FDA reviewers announced a recommendation for stronger warnings on all ADHD drugs due to reports of numerous adverse events like mania and psychosis in clinical trials, including modafinil.
On March 14, 2006, an FDA review was posted to the agency’s web site in advance of next week’s meeting. The FDA said stronger warnings are needed on the risk of psychosis, a mental disorder characterized by the inability to distinguish real and imaginary events.
“The most important finding of this review is that signs of psychosis or mania, particularly hallucinations, can occur in patients with no identifiable risk factors, at usual doses of any of the drugs used to treat ADHD,” according to a memo dated March 3 from two members of the agency’s ADHD psychiatric review team.
The review said current labeling neither addresses those concerns nor does it “clearly state the importance of stopping drug therapy in any patient who develops hallucinations or other signs or symptoms of psychosis or mania during drug treatment of ADHD.”
From January 2000, through June 30, 2005, the review found nearly 1,000 reports of psychosis or mania possibly linked to the drugs, including Adderall, Concerta, Ritalin and Strattera. The reports were pulled from the FDA’s database and from the drug makers themselves after the FDA had requested additional information from the drug companies.
The FDA found a “substantial portion of the psychosis-related cases were reported to occur in children 10 years or less,” an age group which according to the FDA, does not typically suffer from psychosis.
“The predominance in young children of hallucinations, both visual and tactile, involving insects, snakes and worms is striking and deserves further evaluation,” the FDA noted.
Last fall, on September 29, 2005, the FDA issued a public health advisory to alert physicians of reports of suicidal thinking in children and adolescents associated with Strattera, and directed Eli Lilly, manufacturer of Strattera, to develop a Medication Guide for patients and caregivers.
Although Strattera is marketed as a “nonstimulant” medication, according to pediatrician, Dr DuBose Ravenel, MD, FAAP, of Cornerstone Pediatrics, “it is in fact a stimulant every bit as much as the traditional stimulants, as evidenced by even a cursory consideration of its pharmacological action, and evidenced by the fact that it is classified as such by the World Health Organization.”
Dr Fred Baughman, ADHD expert and well-known author, will testify before the committee next week on behalf of the International Center for the Study of Psychiatry and Psychology.
“We know these drugs are poisons,” Dr Bughman warns, “and we know they are highly addictive, dangerous and sometimes deadly.” He points to the senseless death of children on ADHD drugs. “Matthew Smith is dead today not because of ADHD,” he says, “but, as carefully delineated by the medical examiner, his chronic Ritalin/methylphenidate exposure.”
“Nor is there any other plausible explanation for the death of Stephanie Hall, 11 years old of Canton, OH,” he advises. “No physical predisposing factor other than Ritalin was present,” he notes, “leading up to her death, in bed, by cardiac arrhythmia.”
“The main question the FDA needs to answer concerns ADHD,” Dr Baughman says, “the “disorder” these addictive, dangerous, sometimes deadly drugs are used to treat.”
“The shocking fact of the matter is that it is not a disorder/disease at all,” he explains, “children said to have it are entirely normal meaning they bear no objective, demonstrable, diagnosable, abnormality, meaning there is no justification for prescribing these or any other drugs for so-called ADHD–a wholly fictitious, wholly subjective entity.”
According to Dr David Stein, Ph D, Professor of Psychology at Longwood University, “the risks of psychiatric drugs in the bodies of children and teenagers is well documented and needs no further elaboration.”
He wants the advisory committee to address two issues: (1) the validity of ADD/ADHD as diseases; and (2) effective alternative behavioral treatments that reduce reliance on drugs.
Dr Stein’s behavioral/cognitive treatment methods have won awards from the American Psychological Association (One of top ten research projects at the 1998), the International Center for Psychiatry and Psychology (2005), and the Ritalin Litigation Conference (2001).
“It is my hope,” he says, “that the committee will consider that within the decision tree, the physician’s choice to use drugs can be lowered in favor of, at the very least, recommending properly designed behavioral parent training.”
“The risks of legal liability and the risks of medical damage to children,” Dr Stein advises, “can be reduced with the augmentation and further development of proper behavioral treatments.”
According to court certified expert and author of many books on ADHD, Dr Peter Breggin, all stimulants commonly cause “a continuum of stimulation, including agitation and irritability, anger, hostility, disinhibition, hypomania and mania.”
The stimulant or activation syndrome, he advises, was originally observed decades ago with stimulant drugs such as amphetamines, Adderall, and Dexedrine, and methylphenidates such as Ritalin and Concerta.
It also occurs, he notes, with dexmethylphenidate such as Focalin, and selegilines like Sparlon and Provigil, as well as the atomoxetine, Strattera.
In a review of the summary data for the FDA Spontaneous Reporting System through March 1997, Dr Breggin counted the following: Psychosis, 43; hallucinations, 44; and psychotic depression, 11. His review also counted more than 50 reports in the combined category of overdose, overdose intentional, and suicide attempt.
“In regard to both amphetamines and methylphenidate,” he explains, “there are a surprising number of animal and human studies showing persistent biochemical changes and atrophy after several weeks or more exposure.”
“While the changes in children are sometimes mistakenly attributed to ADHD or OCD, they are a known effect of stimulants on the animal brain,” he advises. “A known toxic drug effect is a far more likely culprit than a highly speculative “biochemical imbalance” in these children,” he adds.
Dr Breggin will also testify at the advisory committee hearing on behalf of the International Center for Psychiatry and Psychology, and will recommend that labels for stimulant drugs include the following neuropsychiatric warnings:
(1) A warning concerning depressive/OCD ADRs that includes depression, apathy, lethargy, listlessness, tiredness, sadness, crying, withdrawal, and social isolation as well as worrying, ruminating, over-focusing, and other obsessive-compulsive behaviors.
(2) A warning concerning stimulation or activation ADRs that includes insomnia, anxiety, agitation, panic attacks, irritability, hostility, aggressiveness, violence, impulsivity, disinhibition, hypomania, and mania.
(3) Strengthened warning concerning psychosis, paranoid ideation and hallucinations.
(4) Strengthened warning about rebound, dependence and abuse, especially for methylphenidate products (all current methylphenidate labels especially inadequate).
(5) A specific warning that the combination of depressive, obsessive-compulsive and stimulant ADRs poses a serious risk of dyscontrol or disinhibition with suicidal and/or violent behavior.
(6) A warning in the labels for amphetamine and methylphenidate products about persistent brain dysfunction and atrophy.
Information released by the FDA last month showed that between 1999 and 2003, seventy-eight million prescriptions were written for ADHD drugs in children ages 1 to 18, and more than 14 million prescriptions were written for adults.
During last month’s hearings, Safety Drug committee member, Dr Steve Nissen, said he is certain the public is not aware of the risks. “If the current warnings were adequate we wouldn’t have 2.5 million children and 1.5 million adults taking these drugs.”